Drug Dependence, Abuse and treatment

Good Morning to Everyone, Today Blog is our first blog on Pharmacy.
Our today topic is on Drug Dependence, Drug Abuse, and treatment. Let’s begins….

Before You Read
Disclaimer :Information is only for Educational purposes of Medical Personal and not for practical use by anybody without consent of Prescriber(well Qualified Physician). 

Introduction

Man is facing different types of disease and disorder due to change in his lifestyle. Man is facing Stress, tension, anxiety, upset Ness etc.. So man wanted to elevate or change his mood to become happy and recover from Psychological disease and disorders he start taking Abusive drugs like Morphine, heroine, Charas, ganja, Hashish, Cocaine, barbiturates etc. Man also take help of several beverages which contains drugs like Caffeine, Nicotine etc to stimulate his CNS to to perform all daily activities with full energy.

some Important terminology

1] Drug abuse & misuse- It is referred to situation when a person start using a drug other than for therapeutic effect to achieve calmness, relieve from stress, tension. In other words person start to misuse the drug. 

2] Drug Dependence – person start depending on a drug for its psychological action on body to relieve from calmness, stress, tension, anxiety etc. It is of two types…
@ Physical dependence
B] Psychological dependence

3] Drug Addiction person is addicted toward the use of drug.Person may have compulsive or non compulsive desire toward the drug. if drug uptake is compulsion then it would called Psychological Dependence. 
And if compulsion not required then it is called physical Dependence. 
Ex- If we are taking a cup of tea then we may not be addicted or won’t show any compulsion toward the caffeine present in the tea cup. 

4) Drug habituation- It’s referred to the situation when the patient may show compulsion, may not show compulsion and may also represent no effect toward the effect of drug and in that condition person may tend to increase the dose of drug. 

5) Drug tolerance–Person may become tolerated towards a particular dose of drug and person not able to feel or experience the same psychological effect as he experienced in his first dose.so the person start increasing the dosage of drug. 

6) Withdrawal syndrome – Syndrome means the group of symptoms and withdrawal means the removal or stoppage. So the withdrawal symptom means the symptoms which person experience during the stoppage or removal of a abusive drug from his routine or lifestyle. Such symptoms are mark that person body require the same drug to work normally or properly. After having same drug, person feels relieve and calmness from the withdrawal symptoms. 
* Degree of Drug Dependence can be measured by degree of withdrawal symptoms. 

7) Abstinence it referred to the stoppage and removal of drug or absence of drug input. 

8) Hallucinogens – These are drugs which causes hallucination in a person. In other words they act on CNS and result in state of perception of  subject with no reality. 
Hallucinogens are referred to as Psychotogens, Psychedelics and Psychomimetic. 
Examples of some Hallucinogens are LSD and Marijuana.

9) Psychomimetic – These are drugs which tend to mimics the natural occurring psychosis of body. In other words these drugs act on CNS to produce natural psychology in a person.

10) Psychotogens – These agents  produce Psychotic state in a person.

11) Psychedelics – These agents produce change in mood, judgement and perception which can only be achieved while dreaming but not in reality. Ex Atropine

12) Detoxification – It referred to  freeing of body or removal of toxins from body. It is done by reducing the dose of drug, by exchanging the drug with drug having similar effect but with less potency and toxicity. 
It takes around 10 – 21 days. 

  • 13) Rehabilitation – It is along term treatment process which include psychotherapy, family therapy, group therapy, behavioural therapy. Sometimes or oftenly it includes exercise, yoga and spritual teachings along with meditation to boost mental strength. 


Legal act
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic drug Act 1985 replace the Opium act 1857 and Dangerous drug Act 1930. 

Punishment:Min. 3-10 years with 1 lac penalty. 
Max: 20 years with 2 lac Penalty
For repeated Crime: 30 years imprisonment and 3lac Penalty. 

Drug of abuse, Complication, Symptoms &Treatment

Narcotic analgesics: Heroine, morphine, pethidine and methadone are prime drug of abuse. These drug causes physical Dependence. 

Complication: 
Constipation,swelling of Hands, feet, eyelids and scalp, pinpoint pupil, impotency in males. 

Symptoms:
Sleep disturbance,Yawning,Rhinorrhoea, diarrhoea, Sweatening, nausea, vomiting,anxiety

Treatment: 30ug Methadone is safe for daily dose. 
Psychotherapy

Depressant Drugs
A) Alcohol: 
Complication:
Fatty liver, Gastritis, Cirrhosis and beri beri

Symptoms:
Sweatening, Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Tachycardia, headache and insomnia along with anxiety. 

Treatment:
Psychotherapy, Iv Fluids and Electrolytes replacement therapy, Drug therapy with Diazepam, Chlordiazepam and nutritional supplement in case of beri beri. 
Disulfiram (Antabuse) 0. 1g/ml daily and metronidazole and calcium carbide.  

B0 Barbiturates: These are taken for treating Insomnia.
Complication:
Impairment of Psychomotor skill, Osteomalacia in adult, Rickets in children and Folate deficiency

Symptoms:
Weakness, loss of body weight, Hallucination, Nausea and vomitting

Treatment:
Phenothiazine and antihistamine are given

C) LSD ( Lysergic acid diethylamide ):

Complication:
Heightening of colour, Blurred vision, altered Shape, Hallucination, anxiety and increase heart rate along with dry mouth. 

Treatment:
Anti anxiety and sedative are given such as Chlorpromazine. 

CNS Stimulants
Amphetamine and cocaine are used as CNS stimulants. 
Complication:
Hallucination, fear, Suspicion and anxiety. 
Cocaine causes no Physical Dependence but Psychological Dependence.

Treatment:
Treatment is done By antidepressant like Haloperidol & Desipramine.

Disclaimer :Information is only for Educational purposes of Medical Personal and not for practical use by anybody without consent of Prescriber(well Qualified Physician). 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Related Post